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# Kevin Warren

Kevin Warren is a Senior Electrical Engineer for the Institute for Space and Defense Electronics. His current focus is on modeling the soft error response of microelectronics for terrestrial and space applications. He is part of a team that uses detailed analysis at the circuit and device level in conjunction with physics based Monte-Carlo radiation transport tools to identify radiation sensitive designs, predict soft error rates, and develop optimization strategies for improving radiation hardness. Kevin is also active in CubeSat design, analysis, and communications activities. Previous projects at ISDE include the design and development of radiation effects test structures and test plans for model development and technology characterization related to the Trident D5LE program.

He received his B.S. degree in chemistry with an emphasis in biochemistry from Tennessee Technological University in 1994, M.S. in Chemistry at Vanderbilt University in 1997 where he investigated the nonlinear optical properties of quantum dots in silica-xerogels fabricated by synthetic chemical methods. He received his M.S. in Electrical Engineering from Vanderbilt University in 1999, and his Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering in 2010 on Monte Carlo based SEU rate prediction in sequential logic.

Previous employment was at Raytheon ITSS as a contractor at the Marshall Space Flight Center from 1998 to 2000 where he supported the component group as a radiation effects engineer for the International Space Station and the Space Shuttle Programs. He then worked at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratories as a specialist in the testing and qualification of electronic parts for multiple unmanned space exploration projects, including the CONTOUR and MESSENGER programs. His responsibilities included the development of custom test hardware and software for electrical and radiation testing of integrated circuits.

At ISDE, Dr. Warren has performed extensive research toward the development of advanced methods for predicting on-orbit single event error rates in modern technologies as well as the development of test campaigns that meet the requirements of those models. He has developed methods and software that tightly integrate physics-based radiation transport tools with Cadence EDA tools for predicting error rates, identifying design vulnerabilities, and evaluating potential improvements all within the virtual radiation environment. He has led multiple single event test campaigns for external customers. He has participated in the management and design of CubeSat payloads currently in Earth orbit.

#### Publications

- R.A. Austin, B.D. Sierawski, J.M. Trippe, A.L. Sternberg, K.M. Warren, R.A. Reed, R.A. Weller, R.D. Schrimpf, M.L. Alles, L.W. Massengill, D.M. Fleetwood, G.W. Buxton, J.C. Brandenburg, W. Burns Fisher, R. Davis, “RadFxSat: A Flight Campaign for Recording Single-Event Effects in Commercial Off-the-Shelf Microelectronics,” Submitted for publication in IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., 2017.
- J. M. Trippe, R.A. Reed, R.A. Austin, B.D. Sierawski, L.W. Massengill, R.A. Weller, K.M. Warren, R.D. Schrimpf, B. Narasimham, B. Bartz, and D. Reed, “Predicting Muon-Induced SEU Rates for a 28-nm SRAM Using Protons and Heavy Ions to Calibrate the Sensitive Volume Model,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., Accepted for Publication. 2017.
- M. Hamlyn, P. L. Hower, K. Warren and R. C. Baumann, “Transmission Line Pulse Test Method for Estimating SEB Performance of n-Channel Lateral DMOS Power Transistors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., Accepted for Publication. 2017.
- R. C. Harrington, J.S. Kauppila, K.M. Warren, Y.P. Chen, J.A. Maharrey, T.D. Haeffner, T.D. Loveless, B.L. Bhuva, M. Bounasser, K. Lilja, and L.W. Massengill, “Estimating Single-Event Logic Cross Sections in Advanced Technologies,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 2115-2121, Aug. 2017.
- B.D. Sierawski, K.M. Warren, A.L. Sternberg, R.A. Austin, J.M. Trippe, M.W. McCurdy, R.A. Reed, R.A. Weller, M.L. Alles, R.D. Schrimpf, L.W. Massengill; D.M. Fleetwood, A. Monterio, G.W. Buxton, J.C. Brandenburg, W.B. Fisher, and R. Davis, “CubeSats and Crowd-Sourced Monitoring for Single Event Effects Hardness Assurance,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 293-300, Jan. 2017.
- J. M. Trippe, R. A. Reed, B. D. Sierawski, R. A. Weller, R. A. Austin, L. W. Massengill, B. L. Bhuva, K. M. Warren, and B. Narasimham, “Predicting the vulnerability of memories to muon-induced SEUs with low-energy proton test informed by Monte Carlo simulations” 2016 IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS). Pasadena, CA, 2016, pp. SE-6-1-SE-6-6.
- C.N. Arutt, K.M. Warren, R.D. Schrimpf, R.A. Weller, J.S. Kauppila, J.D. Rowe, A.L. Sternberg, R.A. Reed, D.R. Ball, and D.M. Fleetwood, “Proton Irradiation as a Screen for Displacement-Damage Sensitivity in Bipolar Junction Transistors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 62, no. 6, Pp 2498-2504. Dec. 2015.
- N.A. Dodds, M.J. Martinez, P.E. Dodd, M.R. Shaneyfelt, F.W. Sexton, J.D. Black, D.S. Lee, S.E. Swanson, B.L. Bhuva, K.M. Warren, R.A. Reed, J. Trippe, B.D. Sierawski, R.A. Weller, N. Mahatme, N.J. Gaspard, T. Assis, R. Austin, S.L. Weeden-Wright, L.W. Massengill, G. Swift, M. Wirthlin, M. Cannon, R. Liu, L. Chen, A.T. Kelly, P.W. Marshall, M. Trinczek, E.W. Blackmore, S.-J. Wen, R. Wong, B. Narasimham, J.A. Pellish, and H. Puchner, “The Contribution of Low-Energy Protons to the Total On-Orbit SEU Rate,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 62, no. 6, Pp 2440-2451. Dec. 2015.
- R.A. Reed, R.A. Weller, M.H. Mendenhall, D.M. Fleetwood, K.M. Warren, B.D. Sierawski, M.P. King, R.D. Schrimpf, and E.C. Auden, “Physical Processes and Applications of the Monte Carlo Radiative Energy Deposition (MRED) Code,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 1441-146, Aug. 2015.
- J.D. Black, P.E. Dodd, and K.M. Warren, “Physics of Multiple-Node Charge Collection and Impacts on Single-Event Characterization and Soft Error Rate Prediction,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 1836-1851. Jun. 2013.
- J.H. Adams, A.F. Barghouty, M.H. Mendenhall, R.A. Reed, B.D. Sierawski, K.M. Warren, J.W. Watts, and R.A. Weller, “CRÈME: The 2011 Revision of the Cosmic Ray Effects on Micro-Electronics Code,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 3141-3147. Dec. 2012.
- W.G. Bennett, R.D. Schrimpf, N.C. Hooten, R.A. Reed, J.S. Kauppila, R.A. Weller, K.M. Warren, and M.H. Mendenhall, “Efficient Method for Estimating the Characteristics of Radiation-Induced Current Transients,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 2704-2709. Dec. 2012.
- M.A. Clemens, B.D. Sierawski, K.M. Warren, M.H. Mendenhall, N.A. Dodds, R.A. Weller, R.A. Reed, P.E. Dodd, M.R. Shaneyfelt, J.R. Schwank, S.A. Wender, and R.C. Baumann, “The Effects of Neutron Energy and High-Z Materials on Single Event Upsets and Multiple Cell Upsets,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 2591-2598. Dec. 2011.
- L. Artola, G. Hubert, K.M. Warren, M. Gaillardin, R.D. Schrimpf, R.A. Reed, R.A. Weller, J.R. Ahlbin, P. Paillet, M. Raise, S. Girard, S. Duzellier, L.W. Massengill, and F. Bezerra, “SEU Prediction From SET Modeling Using Multi-Node Collection in Bulk Transistors and SRAMs Down to the 65nm Technology Node,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 1338-1346. Jun. 2011.
- N.F. Haddad, A.T. Kelly, R.K. Lawrence, Bin Li, J.C. Rodgers, J.F. Ross, K.M. Warren, R.A. Weller, M.H. Mendenhall, and R.A. Reed, “Incremental Enhancement of SEU Hardened 90nm CMOS Memory Cell,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 58, no.3, pp. 975-980. Jun. 2011.
- B. Narasimham, J.K. Wang, M. Buer, R. Gorti, K. Chandrasekharan, K.M. Warren, B.D. Sierawski, R.D. Schrimpf, R. A. Reed, and R.A. Weller, “Contribution of Control Logic Upsets and Multi-Node Charge Collection to Flip-Flop SEU Cross-Section in 40-nm CMOS,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 57, no. 6. pp. 3176-3182. Dec. 2010.
- T.D. Loveless, M.L. Alles, D.R. Ball, K.M. Warren, and L.W. Massengill, “Parametric Variability Affecting 45nm SOI SRAM Single Event Upset Cross-Section,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 3228-3233. Dec. 2010.
- R.A. Weller, M.H. Mendenhall, R.A. Reed, R.D. Schrimpf, K.M. Warren, B.D. Sierawski, and L.W. Massengill, “Monte Carlo Simulation of Single Event Effects,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 57, no.4, pp. 1726-1746. Aug. 2010.
- K.M. Warren, A.L. Sternberg, J.D. Black, R.A. Weller, R. A. Reed, M.H. Mendenhall, R.D. Schrimpf, and L.W. Massengill, “Heavy Ion Testing and Single Event Upset Rate Prediction Considerations for a DICE Flip-Flop,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 3130-3137. Dec. 2009.
- R.A. Weller, R.A. Reed, K.M. Warren, M.H. Mendenhall, B.D. Sierawski, R.D. Schrimpf, and L.W. Massengill, “General Framework for Single Event Effects Rate Prediction in Microelectronics,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 3098-3108. Dec. 2009.
- B.D. Sierawski, J.A. Pellish, R.A. Reed, R.D. Schrimpf, K.M. Warren, R.A. Weller, M.H. Mendenhall, J.D. Black, A.D. Tipton, M.A. Xapsos, R.C. Baumann, X. Deng, M.J. Campola, Friendlich, H.S. Kim, A.M. Phan, and C.M. Seidleck, “Impact of Low-Energy Proton Induced Upsets on Test Methods and Rate Predictions,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 56 no. 6, pp. 3085-3092. Dec. 2009.
- R.A. Weller, R.A Reed, K.M. Warren, M.H. Mendenhall, B.D. Sierawski, R.D. Schrimpf, and L.W. Massengill, “General Framework for Single Event Effects Rate Prediction in Microelectronics,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 3098-3108. Dec. 2009.
- K.M. Warren, A.L. Sternberg, R.A. Weller, M. P. Baze, L.W. Massengill, R.A. Reed, M.H. Mendenhall, and R.D. Schrimpf, “Integrating Circuit Level Simulation and Monte-Carlo Radiation Transport Code for Single Event Upset Analysis in SEU Hardened Circuitry,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 2886-2894. Dec. 2008.
- J.D. Black, D.R. Ball II, K.M. Warren, R.D. Schrimpf, R.A. Reed, D.M. Fleetwood, W.H. Robinson, A.D. Tipton, D.A. Black, P.E. Dodd, and N F. Haddad, “Characterizing SRAM Single Event Upset in Terms of Single and Double Node Charge Collection ,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 2943-2947. Dec. 2008.
- R.D. Schrimpf, K.M. Warren, D.R. Ball, R.A. Weller, R.A. Reed, D.M. Fleetwood, L.W. Massengill, M.H. Mendenhall, S.N. Rashkeev, S.T. Pantelides, and M.L. Alles, “Multi-Scale Simulation of Radiation Effects in Electronic Devices,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 1891-1902. Aug. 2008.
- M.J. Gadlage, R.D. Schrimpf, B. Narasimham, J.A. Pellish, K.M. Warren, R.A. Reed, B.L. Bhuva, L.W. Massengill, and X. Zhu, “Assessing Alpha Particle-Induced Single Event Transient Vulnerability in a 90-nm CMOS Technology,” IEEE Electron Device Let., vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 638-640. Jun. 2008.
- K.M. Warren, B.D. Sierawski, R.A. Reed, R.A. Weller, C. Carmichael, A. Lesea, M.H. Mendenhall, P.E. Dodd, R.D. Schrimpf, L.W. Massengill, T. Hoang, H. Wan, JL Jong, R. Padovani, and J. Fabula, “Monte-Carlo Based On- Orbit Single Event Upset Rate Prediction for a Radiation Hardened by Design Latch,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 54, no. 6. pp. 2419-2425. Dec. 2007.
- P.E. Dodd, J.R. Schwank, M.R. Shaneyfelt, J.A. Felix, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, J. Baggio, R.A. Reed, K.M. Warren, R.A. Weller, R.D. Schrimpf, G.L. Hash, S.M. Dalton, K. Hirose, and H. Saito, “Impact of Heavy Ion Energy and Nuclear Interactions on Single-Event Upset and Latchup in Integrated Circuits,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 2303-2311. Dec. 2007.
- R.A. Reed, R.A. Weller, M.H. Mendenhall, J.-M Lauenstein, K.M. Warren, J.A. Pellish, R.D. Schrimpf, B.D. Sierawski, L.W. Massengill, P.E. Dodd, M.R. Shaneyfelt, J.A. Felix, J.R. Schwank, N.F. Haddad, R.K. Lawrence, J.H. Bowman, and R. Conde, “Impact of Ion Energy and Species on Single Event Effects Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 2312-2321, Dec. 2007.
- J. A. Pellish, R.A. Reed, A.K. Sutton, R.A. Weller, M.A. Carts, P.W. Marshall, C.J. Marshall, R. Krithivasan, J.D. Cressler, M.H. Mendenhall, R.D. Schrimpf, K.M. Warren, B.D. Sierawski, and G.F. Niu, “A Generalized SiGe HBT Single-Event Effects Model for On-Orbit Event Rate Calculations,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 54, no. 6. pp. 2322-2329. Dec. 2007.
- D. McMorrow, W.T. Lotshaw, J.S. Melinger, S. Buchner, J.D. Davis, R.K. Lawrence, D. Haddad, J.H. Bowman, R.D. Brown, D. Carlton, J Pena, J. Vasquez, K.M. Warren, and L.W. Massengill, “Single-Event Upset in Flip- Chip SRAM Induced by Through-Wafer, Two-Photon Absorption,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 2421-2425. Dec. 2007.
- K.M. Warren, R.A. Weller, B.D. Sierawski, R.A. Reed, M.H. Mendenhall, R.D. Schrimpf, L.W. Massengill, M. Porter, J. Wilkinson, K.A. LaBel, and J. Adams, “Application of RADSAFE to Model Single Event Upset Response of a 0.25 um CMOS SRAM,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 898-903. Aug. 2007.
- B.D. Olson, O.A. Amusan, S. Dasgupta, L.W. Massengill, A.F. Witulski, B.L. Bhuva, M.L. Alles, K.M. Warren, and D.R. Ball, “Analysis of Parasitic PNP Bipolar Transistor Mitigation Using Well Contacts in 130 nm and 90 nm CMOS Technology,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 894-897. Aug. 2007.
- K.M. Warren, B.D. Sierawski, R.A. Weller, R.A. Reed, M.H. Mendenhall, J.A. Pellish, R.D. Schrimpf, L.W. Masengill, M.E. Porter, and J.W. Wilkinson, “Predicting Thermal Neutron-Induced Soft Errors in Static Memories Using TCAD and Physics-Based Monte Carlo Simulation Tools,” Electron Device Let., vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 180-182. Feb. 2007.
- R.A. Reed, R.A. Weller, R. D. Schrimpf, M.H. Mendenhall, K.M. Warren, and L.W. Massengill, “Implications of Nuclear Reactions for Single Event Effects Test Methods and Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 3356-3362. Dec. 2006.
- D.R. Ball, K.M. Warren, R.A. Weller, R.A. Reed, A. Kobayashi, J.A. Pellish, M.H. Mendenhall, C.L. Howe, L.W. Massengill, R.D. Schrimpf, and N.F. Haddad, “Simulating Nuclear Events in a TCAD Model of a High-Density SEU Hardened SRAM Technology,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 1794-1798. Aug. 2006.
- K.M. Warren, R.A. Weller, M.H. Mendenhall, R.A. Reed, D.R. Ball, C.L. Howe, B.D. Olson, M.L. Alles, L.W. Massengill, R.D. Schrimpf, N.F. Haddad, S.E. Doyle, D. McMorrow, J.S. Melinger, and W.T. Lotshaw, “The Contribution of Nuclear Reactions to Heavy Ion Single Event Upset Cross-section Measurements in a High-density SEU Hardened SRAM,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol 52, no. 6, pp. 2125-2131. Dec. 2005.
- C.L. Howe, R.A. Weller, R.A. Reed, M.H. Mendenhall, R.D. Schrimpf, K.M. Warren, D.R. Ball, L.W. Massengill, K.A. LaBel, J.W. Howard, and N.F. Haddad, “Role of Heavy-ion Nuclear Reactions in Determining On-orbit Single Event Error Rates,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 2182-2188. Dec. 2005.
- B.D. Olson, D.R. Ball, K.M. Warren, L.W. Massengill, N.F. Haddad, S.E. Doyle, and D. McMorrow, “Simultaneous Single Event Charge Sharing and Parasitic Bipolar Conduction in a Highly-Scaled SRAM Design,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 2132-2136. Dec. 2005.
- A.S. Kobayashi, D.R. Ball, K.M. Warren, R.A. Reed, M.H. Mendenhall, R.D. Schrimpf, and R.A. Weller, “The Effect of Metallization Layers on Single Event Susceptibility,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 2189-2193. Dec. 2005.
- K. Warren, D. Roth, J. Kinnison, and R. Pappalardo, “Single Event Burnout of NPN Bipolar Junction Transistors in Hybrid DC/DC Converters.” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 3097-3099. Dec. 2002.
- K. Warren, D. Roth, J. Kinnison, and R. Pappalardo, “Single Event Testing of DC/DC Converters for Space Flight.” IEEE NSREC Data Workshop, 2002. p 106.
- K. Warren, D. Roth, J. Kinnison, and B. Carkuff, “Single Event Latchup and Total Dose Testing of Candidate Spacecraft Components.” IEEE NSREC Data Workshop, 2001. p 100.
- S. L. O’Dell, M. W. Bautz, W. C. Blackwell, Jr., Y, M. Butt , R. A. Cameron, R. F. Elsner, M. S. Gussenhoven, J. J. Kolodziejczak, J. I. Minow, R. M. Suggs, D. A. Swartz, A. F. Tennant, S. N. Virani, and K. M. Warren, “Radiation environment of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory”, Proc. SPIE 4140, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XI, 99. Dec. 2000.
- K.M. Warren, “The Influence of SOI-MOSFET Geometry on Predicted Single Event Cross Sections” M.S. Thesis, Dept. Elec. Eng., Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN. 1999.
- K.M. Warren, L.W. Massengill, R.D. Schrimpf, and H. Barnaby, “Analysis of the Influence of MOS Device Geometry on Predicted SEU Cross Sections,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol 46, no. 6, pp. 1363-1369. Dec. 1998.

#### Presentations

- K.M. Warren, Monte Carlo Based Single-Event Effect and Soft-Error Rate Prediction Methods, Short Course Tutorial, 2012 Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference. Miami, FL. July 2012.
- K. M. Warren, et al., “Applications of Monte Carlo Radiation Transport Simulations Techniques for Predicting Single Event Effects in Microelectronics,” 21st International Conference on the Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry, 2010.
- K.M. Warren, et al., “Mechanisms, Modeling, Measurement and Mitigation of Soft Errors,” 2010 International Reliability and Physics Symposium Short Course Tutorial. May 2010.
- K.M. Warren, et al., “Heavy Ion Testing and Single Event Upset Rate Prediction Considerations for a DICE Flip-Flop,” 2009 Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference.
- K.M. Warren, et al., “Predicting Neutron Induced Soft Error Rates: Evaluation of Accelerated Ground Based Test Methods,” Technical Presentation, 2008 International Reliability and Physics Symposium. April 2008.
- K.M. Warren, et al., “Integrating Circuit Level Simulation and Monte-Carlo Radiation Transport Code for Single Event Upset Analysis in SEU Hardened Circuitry,” 2008 Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference.
- K.M. Warren, et al., “Monte-Carlo Based On- Orbit Single Event Upset Rate Prediction for a Radiation Hardened by Design Latch,” 2007 Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference.
- K.M. Warren, et al., “The Contribution of Nuclear Reactions to Heavy Ion Single Event Upset Cross-section Measurements in a High-density SEU Hardened SRAM,” 2005 Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference.
- K.M. Warren, et al. “Modeling Alpha and Neutron Induced Soft Errors in Static Random Access Memories”, Technical Presentation, 2007 ICICDT Conference Presentation.
- K.M. Warren, et al., “Single Event Burnout of NPN Bipolar Junction Transistors in Hybrid DC/DC Converters,” 2002 Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference.
- K.M. Warren, et al., “Analysis of the Influence of MOS Device Geometry on Predicted SEU Cross Sections.” 1998 Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference.

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